Therein lays the need of applying TQM in higher education. The paper answers to the question as how to apply TQM in higher education. PAPER Excellence-Whether in a National Endeavour, a Company, an Athletic competition or a Personal Goal-Comes from the Never Ending Pursuit of Improvement. Introduction In this world of ever increasing competition, rapid changes of technology, declining quality, changing demographics, privatization and internalization in education have led to the use of the concept of TQM in education.
The student nowadays is considered as customer and the system of education needs to be according to the requirement of the customer (student). India has 350- plus Universities and deemed universities and over 14,000 medical, engineering and arts and science colleges. Despite this the quality of higher education in India has left much to be desired. All this highlights the need for TQM in higher education. In this paper I intend to throw light on the application of TQM in higher education, simultaneously highlighting the benefits of applying TQM and the Accreditation agencies in India.
For this, I surveyed the relevant literature on the topic. Conceptual background of TQM The three major figures in the TQM movement are: W. Edwards Deming, originator of fourteen points of TQM, Dr. J. M. Juran, author of the Juran Trilogy and Philip B. Cresby, who outlined the four Absolutes of Quality Management. Dr. W. Edwards Deming, an American by origin is known as the “Father of the concept of TQM”. He framed the concept of TQM in 1946 after World War II for production of goods and services in consumer sector.
It was intended to satisfy the quest by customers for quality in products The Americans didn’t realize its importance but the Japanese embraced the concept. As a result, Japanese secondary markets were rebuilded and its Tertiary economy also nurtured. This led the American Industrialists in 1980’s to adopt TQM as a vital component in their operations. TQM: Meaning Total Quality Management or TQM is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. Everyone in organization strives and creates customer satisfaction continually at lower real costs.
Quality assurance through statistical methods is a key component. TQM aims to do things right the first time, rather than need to fix problems after they emerge. Higher education: Meaning Higher education is the education beyond secondary school level. It includes the colleges and the Universities. TQM in Higher Education TQM has been recently introduced and experimented in higher education. Many Universities and Colleges enhance the quality of higher education by applying Total Quality Management as a tool. We can understand the meaning of TQM in higher education in light of a definition given by Tulsi (2001) TQM in higher education means improving the quality of courses, input, instructional process, resource management processes and structure as well as student support service output and linkages with world of work and other organizations. ” As the definition embraces a vast area of educational activity, therefore the support and cooperation of Faculty and Staff members are needed for quality improvement. Participatory team work of all occupies a critical place in the practice of TQM. TQM is total in 3 senses:- 1) Customer focus 2) Involvement of staff members ) Continuous Quality Improvement( CQI) The student is the customer, who buys the study course, thus he has a right to get the relevant course material, fairness, congenial learning environment, access and expertise of the teacher and also access to course material (Sytsma, 1996). It involves the combined and continuous efforts of all those involved with system of education, directly or indirectly: may they be the College Board, superintendent, principal, students, faculty, administrative staff, Universities and Accrediting agencies in India.
In India we have Accrediting Agencies like NAAC and ISO (The International Organization for Standardization Accreditation) which are enforcing standards of TQM in higher Education institutions. Benefits of Applying TQM Application of TQM in Higher education Institutions ensures improved communications, increased involvement, improved quality and efficiency in a general context, and increased potential for productivity. How to Apply TQM in Higher Education The essential elements of TQM in higher education may be summed up as:- • Awareness and commitment for everyone
To promote an al-round development of the student in terms of his linguistic, kinesthetic, visual and mathematical talents every participant in the teaching-learning process needs to put his/her best efforts to promote the highest possible quality at each step of the developmental process. For this everyone should be made aware of TQM. For this a staff meeting between the staff parents and college management should be held where the overview of TQM elements should be given and a clear commitment from the College Board, principal should be made for applying TQM in their system of education. A clear mission There should be a clear customer-focussed mission statement accompanied by necessary programmes to achieve it. The programmes should be set according to local, state and employer needs. In other words they should enable the students to face the problems of real life rather than mere memorization of subject matter. • A Systems Planning Approach Instead of compartmentalizing knowledge into separate subjects, it should be provided as an integrated whole so that a student can use his scientific or mathematical knowledge effectively by combining it with the communication skills of English.
For this, there should be an Inter-department planning. • Teaming Replacing Hierarchy The administrators, supervisors and department chairpersons should extend full support towards the Task improvement teams so as to make TQM a success. They should insist on clear missions and should coordinate between the task improvement teams • Enablement and empowerment replacing fear Instead of generating fear among the members of improvement teams, they should be given opportunities to become experts by giving them authority to take informed decisions. This will eventually motivate them to work with dedication. Focus on Mastery-Learning In traditional classrooms, teachers often follow the sequence:- As a result many students fail to learn up to the highest possible level. The TQM alternative is In “Check” step, formative (Not-for-grade) testing is used to determine which learning some students missed. Then that portion is taught to students in some other styles. The checking and revised teaching can be repeated if it is needed. The students who have mastered the material either move to enrichment learning or assist other students with their instructions. This ensures complete mastery over learning material for most of the students. Management by measurement The teacher should measure the data in Steps#3 and Step#4 to study the relationship of the remedial program and final learning result. This recorded data results in improved learning and cost effectiveness. • Development of student TQM Skills The college staff should integrate TQM in the learning courses of students or provide it as a separate course. • A Humanistic Focus on learning environment William Glasser has given some conditions for quality work based upon his translation of TQM principles as:- o Give a warm, supportive environment. Ask students to do useful, best possible work and to evaluate their own work. o Quality work should feel good and should be constructive. Conclusion In the end we can say that Total quality Management in Higher education is the need of the hour. It would motivate teachers to contribute to educational standards and development of academic culture. It would inculcate a team spirit among teachers and administrators to promote harmonious development of students, so as to make them befitting citizens of tomorrow. REFERENCES
Herzler, Elizabeth, TQM in Higher Education: What does the Literature say? , www. google. com P. S. Mohan Kumar, Total Quality Management in Higher Education and Relevance of Accreditation, www. google. com Hardik Vachhrajani, TQM in Education: Renewing the Research Agenda, University News P. K. Tulsi (2001), Total Quality in Higher Education, Reforms and Innovations in Higher Education, AIU, New Delhi. Deming’s Rules, Higher Education in India . ----------------------- PLAN TEACH TEST PLAN TEACH (Do) CHECK REVISED TEACHING (ACT) TEST