`` Ages '' are proclaimed when something happens to do a discontinuity in multiple dimensions that affect civilisation. Economicss and power are historically closely related. What distinguish the Information Age from the Industrial Age are the economic sciences of information and the nature of the power of information. With the coming of the Information Age, there is an chance to supply widespread entree to information-related services and capablenesss merely dreamed about in old epochs. This increased entree to information provides an chance to rethink the ways that we organize, manage, and control. For the really first clip in history the information power burst the efficiency at such degree which is really hard and expensive to be overcome by mass.
The original principle, cognition is power, conveyed the impression that an person 's worth was related to their ownership of information. The more exclusivity associated with the ownership, the more valuable the information. Hence, information was a trade good like any other trade good, whose value was related to scarceness. Individual and organisational behaviours reflected this value paradigm. Hoarding information and working its scarceness have been the norm for some clip.
These behaviours can no longer be tolerated because the economic sciences of information have changed. With the cost of information and its airing dropping dramatically, information has become a dominant factor in the value concatenation for about every merchandise or service. As the costs bead, so make the barriers to entry. Hence, rivals in many spheres are prehending on the chance provided by `` inexpensive '' information and communications to redefine concern procedures and merchandises. These tendencies apply to the kingdom of national security every bit good. Information Age constructs and engineerings are being adopted by many states.
The military response to the Information Age is Network Centric Warfare.
Industrial Age bequest
The term network-centric warfare loosely describes the combination of schemes, emerging tactics, techniques, and processs, and organisations that a to the full or even a partly networked force can use to make a decisive war contending advantage. The key to understand the term web centric warfare is command and control ( C2 ) attack. Command and Control ( C2 ) is the common military term for direction of forces and resources. The rules underlying traditional bid and command apply non merely to Industrial Age warfare, but besides to Industrial Age economic systems and concerns, are decomposition, specialisation, hierarchy, optimisation, deconfliction, centralized planning, and decentralised executing.
The rule of decomposition is using a `` divide and conquer '' outlook to all jobs.
The patterns of dividing combat into land, sea, and air ( and infinite ) , are an illustration of break uping warfare into manageable pieces.
If a sound set of decompositions is made, so these organisational subsets of the organisation can develop professional fortes that help the overall organisation to execute its mission and accomplish its aims. In military personal businesss, specialisation ( creative activity of calling subdivisions and really specialised organisations ) enabled much more efficient calling development and preparation. During military operations, the specialised capablenesss frequently generated capacities that merely could non be created by groups of Renaissance mans.
The organisational effect of Industrial Age specialisation is hierarchy. The attempts of persons and extremely specialised entities must be focused and controlled so that they act in concert to accomplish the ends of the larger organisations that they support. The size and the figure of degrees that separate the leader ( s ) of an endeavor and the specializers that are needed to carry through the undertakings at manus are a map of the overall size of the endeavor and the effectual p of control. The figure of beds is a map of the p of control. As the p of control lessenings, the figure of beds that are needed ( for an organisation of the same size ) increases. In such hierarchies, information demands to flux up and down the concatenation of bid. This is true of policy information, plans, orders, and information about the battlespace ( both studies about the enemy and studies about friendly forces ) . The more beds, the longer this takes and the higher the chance of an mistake or deformation. Even today, correspondence to a member of a military bid is officially addressed to the dominating officer of the unit and is so distributed by the central offices. In other words, all information intended for subsidiaries is recognized as belonging to and fluxing through the hierarchy. Indeed, control of information was a major tool for commanding Industrial Age organisations.
Industrial Age armed forcess decomposed the battlespace, created superimposed organisations, divided into specialisations, and organized forces into hierarchies. Thinking that this attack transformed the complexness of war and big operations into a aggregation of simple, manageable undertakings and jobs, the Industrial Age military felt that they were able to concentrate on the optimisation of procedures. Virtually all Industrial Age armed forcess created `` approved scenarios '' against which their threat-based determinations were optimized. Of class, they experienced troubles when forced to contend against military organisations other than those they had planned against.
Given that the elements of military forces were optimized for specific missions under good known and understood fortunes, Industrial Age bid and control processes relied to a great extent on control steps that would deconflict the elements of the force. The ultimate end was to supply each component of the force with the best possible operating environment.
This was a natural effect of specialisation and optimisation. Deconfliction is far better than conflicted operations ( where friendly units impede one another ) , but it falls good short of the public presentation possible when military assets are employed synergistically.
Planing became a important portion of Industrial Age bid and control because it enabled commanding officers to set up forces and events in clip and infinite so as to maximise the likeliness of success ( mission achievement ) .
Industrial Age commanding officers were, nevertheless, aware of the breakability of programs in the face of the harsh and dynamic operating environment of combat. One of the most celebrated citations about planning is, `` No program survives first contact with the enemy. '' Understanding the bounds of military programs, commanding officers ( peculiarly in extremely professional forces ) encouraged inaugural ( invention and aggressive actions ) and decentralized executing within the overall commanding officer 's purpose. This was non merely a grant to the built-in trouble of anticipating all contingencies. It was besides a contemplation of the fact that the commanding officer on the scene frequently had better information than those removed from the battlespace.
Taken together, they create a form correspondent to command theory. The Industrial Age rules and patterns of decomposition, specialisation, hierarchy, optimisation, and deconfliction, combined with Industrial Age bid and control based on centralised planning and decentralised executing, will non allow an organisation to convey all of its information ( and expertness ) or its assets to bear. In add-on, Industrial Age organisations are non optimized for interoperability or legerity. Therefore, solutions based upon Industrial Age premises and patterns will interrupt down and neglect in the Information Age. This will go on no affair how good intentioned, hardworking, or dedicated the leading and the force are.
Two cardinal force capablenesss needed by Information Age armed forcess are interoperability and legerity. Organizations that are merchandises of Industrial Age believing are non good suited for important betterments in interoperability or legerity [ 1 ] .
3. Network centric warfare
Network centric warfare ( NCW ) is an emerging theory of war in the Information Age. The term network-centric warfare loosely describes the combination of schemes, emerging tactics, techniques, and processs, and organisations that a to the full or even a partly networked force can use to make a decisive war contending advantage.
A networked force carry oning web centric operations ( NCO ) is an indispensable enabler for the behavior of effects based operations. Effectss based operations ( EBO ) are `` sets of actions directed at determining the behaviour of friends, neutrals, and enemies in peace, crisis, and war. ''
NCW generates increased combat power by networking detectors, determination shapers, and taws to accomplish shared awareness, increased velocity of bid, high pacing of operations, greater deadliness, increased survivability, and a grade of self-synchronization. In kernel, it translates information advantage into combat power by efficaciously associating friendly forces within the battlespace, supplying a much improved shared consciousness of the state of affairs, enabling more rapid and effectual determination devising at all degrees of military operations, and thereby leting for increased velocity of executing.
Information engineering progresss in the countries of bid and control ( C2 ) ; intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance ( ISR ) ; and preciseness arms bringing are dramatically reshaping the behavior of warfare in the twenty-first century. NCW will speed up the determination rhythm by associating detectors, communications webs, and arms systems via an interrelated grid, thereby heightening our ability to accomplish information and determination high quality over an adversary during the behavior of military operations. While NCW is the theory, web centric operations ( NCO ) is the theory put into action. In other words, the behavior of NCO represents the execution of NCW.
The aim of determination high quality is to turn an information advantage into a competitory advantage. This competitory advantage is readily evident when comparing forces carry oning NCO and those runing under the old paradigm of platform centric operations. Platform centric forces lack the ability to leverage the synergisms created through a networked force. A force implementing NCW is more adaptative, ready to react to uncertainness in the really dynamic environment of the hereafter at all degrees of warfare and across the scope of military operations.
Over 1000s of old ages of recorded history, the huge bulk of inventions that created important war contending advantages were concentrated in the physical sphere as opposed to the information sphere. These inventions translated chiefly into advantages at the tactical degree of warfare, but they besides had an impact on what are now by and large referred to as the operational and strategic degrees of warfare. They resulted in such battleground advantages as: increased scope of battle, increased deadliness, increased velocity of manoeuvre and increased protection and survivability.
While all of these illustrations of invention are considered platform centric, the past century has besides seen many inventions focused on making advantage in the information sphere. The ability to develop and work an information advantage has ever been of import in warfare, therefore the eternity of security and surprise as of import rules of war. While the importance of invention in the information sphere in the yesteryear has been great, its importance has gained critical significance in warfare today [ 2 ] .
Fig. 1 The Military as a Network-Centric Enterprise
In a more proficient sense, a networked force improves operational pacing by speed uping the Observation-Orientation stages of Boyd 's Observation-Orientation-Decision-Action ( OODA ) cringle.
Identified during the 1970s by US Air Force strategian John Boyd, the OODA is an abstraction which describes the sequence of events while must take topographic point in any military battle. The opposition must be observed to garner information so the aggressor must point himself to the state of affairs or context, so make up one's mind and move consequently. The OODA cringle is therefore cardinal to all military operations, from strategic down to single combat. It loop is an inevitable portion of world and has been so since the first tribal wars of 25,000 old ages ago, as it is cardinal to any predator-prey interaction in the biological universe. Sadly, its proper apprehension had to wait until the seventiess.
At a philosophical and practical degree what confers a cardinal advantage in battles is the ability to remain in front of an opposition and order the pacing of the engagement - to keep the enterprise and maintain an opposition off balance. In consequence, the aggressor forces his opposition into a reactive position and denies the opposition any chance to drive the battle to an advantage.
The participant with the faster OODA cringle, all else being equal, will get the better of the opposition with the slower OODA cringle by barricading or pre-empting any move the opposition with the slower OODA cringle efforts to do.
The four constituents of the OODA cringle can be split into three which are associated with processing information, and one which is associated with motion and application of firepower. Observation-Orientation-Decision is information centric while Action is kinematic or centered in motion, place and firepower. If we aim to speed up our OODA loops to accomplish higher operational pacing than an enemy, we have to speed up all four constituents of the cringle.
Much of 20th century war contending technique and engineering dealt with speed uping the kinetic part of the OODA cringle. Mobility, preciseness and firepower additions were the consequence of this development. There are practical bounds as to how far we can force the kinetic facet of the OODA loop - more destructive arms produce indirect harm, faster platforms and arms incur of all time increasing costs. Consequently we have seen development decelerate down in this sphere since the sixtiess. Many arms and platforms widely used today were designed in the 1950s may stay in usage for decennaries to come.
Observation-Orientation-Decision are all about garnering information, administering information, analysing information, understanding information and make up one's minding how to move upon this information. The faster we can garner, administer, analyse, understand information, the faster we can make up one's mind, and arguably the better we can make up one's mind how and when to move in combat. Networking is a mechanism via which the Observation-Orientation stages of the cringle can be accelerated, and the Decision stage facilitated [ 3 ] .
The warfare in Information Age will be different than warfare in Industrial Age. In order to accomplish a military high quality the military forces should accommodate to the new conditions. The merely networked the existent construction of ground forces is non plenty. A new construction of ground forces must be making which should let exchange of information at a high velocity.
At this point the velocity of action will hold a great impact to the bid and control. Command and control can non obey the direction map of planning, forming, staffing, directing and commanding. During the battle the bid and control should obey OODA cringle.
In fact during the edifice of force the commanding officer should by a skilled director but during the battle the commanding officer should use command theory that trades with the behaviour of dynamical systems.
The OODA cringle is a simple and efficient theoretical account to depict the world of battle.